Asia Pacific Data Fabric Market Report

Asia Pacific Data Fabric Market by Component, by Type of Data Fabric, by Business Application, by Deployment Mode, by Organization Size, by Vertical, Region, Trends, Competitive Analysis, and Growth Opportunities, Key Insights.
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Executive Summary

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market from Consainsights analyses the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market in the Technology & Media industry over the forecast period to 2026.

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric research report from Consainsights outlines the detailed strategic analysis, trends, market opportunities, growth prospects, industry and market challenges and sustainable solutions to sustain in the competitive environment.

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric segmentation includes Component, Type of Data Fabric, Business Application, Deployment Mode, Organization Size, Vertical and Geography.

Market analysis on the basis of Component include Component: Market Drivers, Component: COVID-19 Impact, Software, Services. This segmentation encompasses the key innovations and micro & macro trends, companies/manufacturers operating in this space along with their usage and penetration with respect to the wide range of End Users. Additionally, market sizing information along with the key factors such as market drivers, restraints, opportunities and challenges which are likely to be influencing the market growth are outlined in this report.

Based on the Type of Data Fabric, the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market analysis covers Type of Data Fabric: Market Drivers, Type of Data Fabric: COVID-19 Impact, Disk-Based Data Fabric, In-Memory Data Fabric.

Based on the Business Application, the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market analysis covers Business Application: Market Drivers, Business Application: COVID-19 Impact, Fraud Detection and Security Management, Governance, Risk, and Compliance Management, Customer Experience Management, Sales and Marketing Management, Business Process Management, Other Applications.

Based on the Deployment Mode, the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market analysis covers Deployment Mode: Market Drivers, Deployment Mode: COVID-19 Impact, On-Premises, Cloud.

Based on the Organization Size, the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market analysis covers Organization Size: Market Drivers, Organization Size: COVID-19 Impact, Large Enterprises, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

Based on the Vertical, the Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market analysis covers Vertical: Market Drivers, Vertical: COVID-19 Impact, Data Fabric: Enterprise Use Cases, Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance, Telecommunications and It, Retail and E-Commerce, Healthcare and Life Sciences, Manufacturing, Government, Energy and Utilities, Media and Entertainment, Other Verticals.

Key companies operating in the market include IBM, Oracle, Informatica, Talend, Denodo Technologies, SAP, Netapp, Inc. and so on. This report covers the detailed analysis of the company profiles such as business segments, product portfolio, key brand insights and growth strategies adopted, company SWOT and Strategy analysis along with the financial analysis and analyst insights on the key companies operating in this market.

Moreover, the competitive analysis includes the companies deals such as Mergers, Acquisitions, Partnerships and so on along with the expansion areas focusing on the additional geographies, future insights for success and market share analysis. Major players strategies include the launch of the innovative product lines along with the emphasis on the partnerships and acquisitions to standardize their market share in the market space.

Market Research methodology includes the triangulation of the data from the data sources such as Primary Market Research approach and Secondary Market Research Approach along with the data from the trade bodies and industry standard publications and data sources. Primary inputs from the industry experts and the market respondents from the respective industries to obtain very critical information to assess the future growth prospects of the market. The final data is triangulated and thoroughly validated considering all the data sources using the bottom-up and the top-down approaches to estimate the market sizing of the individual segments.

Report Metric

Details

Market size available for years

2017-2026

Base year considered

2020

Forecast period

2021-2026

Forecast units

Value (USD Billion)

Segments covered

Component, Type of Data Fabric, Business Application, Deployment Mode, Organization Size, Vertical

Countries covered

China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, Australia & New Zealand, Rest of Asia-Pacific

Companies Covered

IBM, Oracle, Informatica, Talend, Denodo Technologies, SAP, Netapp, Inc., Software Ag, Splunk, Inc., HPE, Dell Technologies, Teradata, Precisely, Global IDS, Tibco Software, Idera

The Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market is segmented into the following categories:

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Component:

  • Component: Market Drivers

  • Component: COVID-19 Impact

  • Software

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Type of Data Fabric:

  • Type of Data Fabric: Market Drivers

  • Type of Data Fabric: COVID-19 Impact

  • Disk-Based Data Fabric

  • In-Memory Data Fabric

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Business Application:

  • Business Application: Market Drivers

  • Business Application: COVID-19 Impact

  • Fraud Detection and Security Management

  • Governance, Risk, and Compliance Management

  • Customer Experience Management

  • Sales and Marketing Management

  • Business Process Management

  • Other Applications

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Deployment Mode:

  • Deployment Mode: Market Drivers

  • Deployment Mode: COVID-19 Impact

  • On-Premises

  • Cloud

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Organization Size:

  • Organization Size: Market Drivers

  • Organization Size: COVID-19 Impact

  • Large Enterprises

  • Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market by Vertical:

  • Vertical: Market Drivers

  • Vertical: COVID-19 Impact

  • Data Fabric: Enterprise Use Cases

  • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance

  • Telecommunications and It

  • Retail and E-Commerce

  • Healthcare and Life Sciences

  • Manufacturing

  • Government

  • Energy and Utilities

  • Media and Entertainment

  • Other Verticals

Table of Contents

  1. Executive Summary

  2. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market Overview

    1. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market Definition & Scope
    2. Currency, Year and Forecasts Overview
    3. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market 360° Synopsis: Overview
  3. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Industry Analysis

    1. Industry Value Chain Analysis
    2. Key Companies at each phase of Value Chain
    3. Industry Trend Analysis
  4. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market Analysis

    1. Drives, Restraints, Opportunities and Challenges Impact Analysis
    2. Porter’s Five Force Model Analysis
    3. PESTLE Analysis
    4. BPS Analysis
    5. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market Key Innovation & Trends
    6. Pricing Patterns (Company & Product Type)
  5. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Component

    1. Introduction
    2. Component: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Component: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. Software: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Services: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)

      1. Managed Services
      2. Professional Services
  6. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Type of Data Fabric

    1. Introduction
    2. Type of Data Fabric: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Type of Data Fabric: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. Disk-Based Data Fabric: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. In-Memory Data Fabric: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  7. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Business Application

    1. Introduction
    2. Business Application: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Business Application: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. Fraud Detection and Security Management: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Governance, Risk, and Compliance Management: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    6. Customer Experience Management: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    7. Sales and Marketing Management: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    8. Business Process Management: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    9. Other Applications: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  8. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Deployment Mode

    1. Introduction
    2. Deployment Mode: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Deployment Mode: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. On-Premises: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Cloud: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  9. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Organization Size

    1. Introduction
    2. Organization Size: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Organization Size: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. Large Enterprises: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  10. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Vertical

    1. Introduction
    2. Vertical: Market Drivers: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Vertical: COVID-19 Impact: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. Data Fabric: Enterprise Use Cases: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    6. Telecommunications and It: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    7. Retail and E-Commerce: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    8. Healthcare and Life Sciences: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    9. Manufacturing: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    10. Government: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    11. Energy and Utilities: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    12. Media and Entertainment: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    13. Other Verticals: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  11. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Country

    1. Introduction
    2. China: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    3. Japan: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    4. India: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    5. Southeast Asia: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    6. Australia & New Zealand: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
    7. Rest of Asia-Pacific: Market Trends, Size, and Forecast (2017-2026)
  12. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Company Analysis

    1. Introduction
    2. IBM

      1. Overview
      2. Business Portfolio
      3. Product Portfolio
      4. Key Brands Insights
      5. Company SWOT & Strategic Analysis
      6. Company Financials
      7. Analyst Insights
    3. Oracle

    4. Informatica

    5. Talend

    6. Denodo Technologies

    7. SAP

    8. Netapp, Inc.

    9. Software Ag

    10. Splunk, Inc.

    11. HPE

    12. Dell Technologies

    13. Teradata

    14. Precisely

    15. Global IDS

    16. Tibco Software

    17. Idera

  13. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Competitive Analysis

    1. Strategic Dashboard of Top Market Players
    2. Companies Deals (Mergers, Partnerships, Acquisitions, JVs)
    3. Expansion Areas (Based on Company Analysis)
    4. Market Share Analysis
  14. Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Distribution Channel Analysis

    1. Distributor Type Analysis
    2. Major Distributors (Key Countries)
    3. Future Growth Prospects
  15. Industry & Analysts Insights for Success

  16. Research Methodology

  17. Appendix

    1. List of Tables
    2. List of Figures
    3. Available Customizations
    4. Related Reports

List of Figures

Figure 1: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Structure

Figure 2: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Value Chain Analysis

Figure 3: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Porter's Five Forces Model

Figure 4: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market: Market Dynamics

Figure 5: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 6: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 7: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 8: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 9: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 10: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 11: China Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 12: China Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 13: China Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 14: China Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 15: China Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 16: China Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 17: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 18: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 19: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 20: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 21: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 22: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 23: India Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 24: India Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 25: India Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 26: India Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 27: India Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 28: India Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 29: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 30: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 31: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 32: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 33: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 34: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 35: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 36: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 37: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 38: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 39: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 40: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 41: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 42: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 43: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 44: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 45: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Figure 46: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

List of Tables

Table 1: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 2: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 3: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 4: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 5: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 6: Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 7: China Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 8: China Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 9: China Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 10: China Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 11: China Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 12: China Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 13: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 14: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 15: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 16: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 17: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 18: Japan Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 19: India Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 20: India Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 21: India Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 22: India Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 23: India Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 24: India Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 25: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 26: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 27: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 28: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 29: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 30: Southeast Asia Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 31: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 32: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 33: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 34: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 35: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 36: Australia & New Zealand Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 37: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Component, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 38: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Type of Data Fabric, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 39: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Business Application, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 40: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Deployment Mode, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 41: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Organization Size, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Table 42: Rest of Asia-Pacific Data Fabric Market, By Vertical, 2017-2026 (USD Million)

Research Methodology

Introduction

This research study extensively involved secondary and primary data sources. Initially, all the important terms and processes related to the Asia Pacific Data Fabric market were identified. Then, each of these terms was clearly defined and relationships were established among them in the form of parent market, peer markets, and child markets. The entire value-chain was also studied to distinguish various solution and service providers that are operating in the global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market and how the services are being delivered or consumed in every phase of the value chain. The overall objective of this process was to identify the important segments of the Asia Pacific Data Fabric market that meet two important criteria– 1) their revenue is derivable using assumptions and expert opinions 2) their definitions are unique and non-overlapping.

After defining the market segments, the supply side analysis was carried out where the individual players operating in various segments of the Asia Pacific Data Fabric market were identified and their revenues were analyzed to derive the segmental shares. The derived shares were also validated through an extensive demand side analysis. The below figure depicts different phases of the report production process.

Phases of the report production process

Secondary Research

This research study was initiated with detailed study of information available in the public domain and paid databases. Various secondary sources that were referred during this study include company websites, product descriptions, whitepapers, survey papers, annual reports, investor presentations, press releases, blogs, news, journals, magazines; audit reports, articles published by associations, and paid databases, such as Factiva, D&B Hoovers, and Bloomberg BusinessWeek. The key objective behind secondary research was to obtain information regarding the market evolution, ecosystem, value-chain, total pool of solution and service providers, market segmentation, recent developments, upcoming opportunities and challenges, and various factors that are impacting the market. These data were further validated through primary research.

Primary Research

In primary research, various industry experts from both supply and demand side were interviewed to obtain critical information on competitive landscape, vendor shares, value-chain, pricing strategy, and adoption trends. The primary sources include industry experts, such as CXOs, Vice Presidents, Marketing Directors, Technology Directors, and Business Development Managers of companies that are operating in the global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market. Primary research was also conducted to validate the market segmentations, industry trends, market size, future prospects for market growth, and key strategies adopted by the major players to gain leading position in the market.

Market Size Estimation And Forecasting

This research study followed two approaches to estimate and forecast the size of global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market and its sub-segments– top-down and bottom-up approach. Important data those were used during this process include list of top players operating in the market, their share in the market, and total pool of solution and service providers. This entire process includes the study of annual and financial reports and extensive interview with industry experts across the value-chain. All important factors that are impacting the market were analyzed and verified through primary research. These data were consolidated and processed through an in-house developed market intelligence engine to derive the final quantitative data.

Top-Down Approach

The top-down approach was employed to derive the global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market size through vendor share analysis. More than 40 key players were analyzed and their total contribution in the global market size was found to be around 70%. Thus, remaining 30% was extrapolated to arrive at the global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market size. The regional and country level performance of these top players was also studied to derive the market share for different regions and countries.

Phases of the report production process

Bottom-Up Approach

After the top-down approach, bottom-up approach was employed to derive the share and size for other market segments. Initially, the segmental shares were estimated at the country level. Then, the country- level market numbers were added to derive the regional sizes and finally, by adding the regional sizes, global sizes of all the market segments were calculated.

Phases of the report production process

List of Assumptions

  • Market Estimates and Forecasting: The market is estimated and forecasted in the realistic manner, instead of optimistic/aggressive way.
  • Currency: All the revenue-related market numbers are shown in globally accepted currency, USD.
  • Exchange Rates and Currency Conversion: For conversion of other currencies to USD, the average exchange rate for that particular year was used. OANDA website was used for all currency conversions in this market study.
  • Dollar Fluctuation: Dollar fluctuations are assumed to be moderate and will not affect the market forecasts during the forecast period.
  • Global Economic Conditions: The global economic conditions are assumed to be stable enabling the market to grow with similar rate as it’s been growing from last four years.
  • Qualitative to Quantitative Data Conversion: This market study extensively covers numerous factors that are impacting the global Asia Pacific Data Fabric market. In certain cases, direct quantitative data were not available to clearly indicate their influencing power on the market. To handle such cases, a rating mechanism was applied that was purely based on the understanding of the experts involved in the study.